NEP 30 — Duck Typing for NumPy Arrays - Implementation

Author:Peter Andreas Entschev <>
Author:Stephan Hoyer <>
Type:Standards Track


We propose the __duckarray__ protocol, following the high-level overview described in NEP 22, allowing downstream libraries to return arrays of their defined types, in contrast to np.asarray, that coerces those array_like to NumPy arrays.

Detailed description

NumPy’s API, including array definitions, is implemented and mimicked in countless other projects. By definition, many of those arrays are fairly similar in how they operate to the NumPy standard. The introduction of __array_function__ allowed dispathing of functions implemented by several of these projects directly via NumPy’s API. This introduces a new requirement, returning the NumPy-like array itself, rather than forcing a coercion into a pure NumPy array.

For the purpose above, NEP 22 introduced the concept of duck typing to NumPy arrays. The suggested solution described in the NEP allows libraries to avoid coercion of a NumPy-like array to a pure NumPy array where necessary, while still allowing that NumPy-like array libraries that do not wish to implement the protocol to coerce arrays to a pure Numpy array via np.asarray.


The implementation idea is fairly straightforward, requiring a new function duckarray to be introduced in NumPy, and a new method __duckarray__ in NumPy-like array classes. The new __duckarray__ method shall return the downstream array-like object itself, such as the self object, while the __array__ method returns TypeError.

The new NumPy duckarray function can be implemented as follows:

def duckarray(array_like):
    if hasattr(array_like, '__duckarray__'):
        return array_like.__duckarray__()
    return np.asarray(array_like)

Example for a project implementing NumPy-like arrays

Now consider a library that implements a NumPy-compatible array class called NumPyLikeArray, this class shall implement the methods described above, and a complete implementation would look like the following:

class NumPyLikeArray:
    def __duckarray__(self):
        return self

    def __array__(self):
        return TypeError

The implementation above exemplifies the simplest case, but the overall idea is that libraries will implement a __duckarray__ method that returns the original object, and __array__ solely for the purpose of raising a TypeError, thus preventing unintentional NumPy-coercion. In case of existing libraries that don’t already implement __array__ but would like to use duck array typing, it is advised that they they introduce both __array__ and __duckarray__ methods.

Backward compatibility

This proposal does not raise any backward compatibility issues within NumPy, given that it only introduces a new function. However, downstream libraries that opt to introduce the __duckarray__ protocol may choose to remove the ability of coercing arrays back to a NumPy array via np.array or np.asarray functions, preventing unintended effects of coercion of such arrays back to a pure NumPy array (as some libraries already do, such as CuPy and Sparse), but still leaving libraries not implementing the protocol with the choice of utilizing np.duckarray to promote array_like objects to pure NumPy arrays.

Previous proposals and discussion

The duck typing protocol proposed here was described in a high level in NEP 22.

Additionally, longer discussions about the protocol and related proposals took place in numpy/numpy #13831